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Communication Barriers Between Singapore And Italy Cultural Research Essay

Communication Barriers Between Singapore And Italy Cultural Studies Essay

Singapore can be an amalgamation of 63 islands, and may be the smallest country in Southeast Asia. The approximate range between Singapore and Italy is approximately 9365.5km apart (Length from Singapore to Italy), yet a lot of firms set up their flagships and various business functions locally. Released on Straits Moments-22 April 2009 titled: Spore, Italian location ink package, “Both countries are considering R&D to boost their financial prosperity.” We want to work together so hopefully we can find new patents, products that may be commercialized. That’s the value for Singapore,’ he added. Lombardy’s President Roberto Formigoni said Singapore can be strategic for Italy, especially in leveraging on Singapore’s knowledge of, and relations with, China and Vietnam.” This displays the strong bilateral romantic relationship between both countries. (S’pore, Italian area ink deal)

However, being said that, there are still problems occurring during day-to-day procedures with regards to conversation between Singaporean and Italians. This paper will give attention to the inter-relationship conversation barriers confronted by both Singaporeans and Italians in a specific organization.

Overview of Singapore

Singapore and European countries had great record links since 1869 when Singapore was a major trading and shipping interface. (Who We Are).

After practically 150 years under the British Colony, Singapore emerged as a Nation in 1965. (Rogger, Time not stated) Thus, this might portray a deceptive imagine of Singaporeans as appearing more ‘westernized’. However, on the other hand, younger generations of business people in Singapore are generally more experience in getting together with people and so are more versatile and open-minded to execute organization with foreigners. (Katz, 2007)

Singapore is usually a cosmopolitan society where persons live harmoniously and interactions among different races are generally seen. Singapore retains a diverse population due to immigrants of the past has given the place an assortment of 3 major racial organizations comprising Chinese, Malay and Indians who does not process a single dominant national identification (Warnstam, 2007).

In order to accomplish business successfully in a multicultural nation like Singapore, it is important for all to comprehend the different cultural traditions, customs, along with background of each race teams. This will prevent unnecessary conflicts.

Languages Used in Singapore

English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil are the four official languages that are commonly used in Singapore. Singapore also has its own brand of spoken English, which is known as Singlish. It is fairly not the same as English in its speaking accents and grammar.

Religion in Singapore

Singapore generally allows religious freedom, although religious teams are at the mercy of government scrutiny, and some religious sects are restricted or banned. ( The faith diversity in Singapore contains Chinese temples (Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and ancestor worship), Islam, Hinduism, Christianity and others which comprises of Jews and Sikhs, etc (Lepoer, 1989).

Culture and Culture of Singapore

The Family

The common characteristics of Singaporeans will be that the ideas of harmony, mutual secureness and working in groups are more significant than that of acting as an individual. The family represents the guts of the interpersonal structures which highly emphasizes in unity, loyalty and value for older people (Kwintessential, Year not stated).


Kiasu is a term often utilized by Singaporean to spell it out the social attitude of Singaporeans who tend to be afraid of shedding in anything or in any situation (Warnstam, 2007). Regarding to Warnstam (2007), the word Kaisu identifies both positive and negative connotation; some recommend the attitude to be Kiasu reflects the strong do the job ethics and competitiveness within each Singaporean. Whereas, others might feel that being Kiasu brings about a graceless society.

Concept of Face

‘Maintaining face’ plays a significant part of the Singapore culture. According to Craig (2004), the concept of face is being measured as of one’s internal quality, status, good name, and good character. To prevent from losing deal with, Singaporeans will control their temper and tendencies in public and can not criticize people directly on the facial skin (Warnstam, 2009). Thus, interaction is conducted indirectly. In Singapore, face does not involve purely on personal satisfaction but involves the country and its own whole population since it encourages group harmony and solidarity.


Singapore values the diversity of its persons and often stresses the importance of accepting difference among its diverse population of individuals from different races such as Chinese, Malay and Indians. Despite the evitable separation of some organizations, Singapore will serve as an ‘umbrella’ culture creates a sense of belonging among all Singaporeans (Warnstam, 2007).

Singapore Education System

Singapore used to put into practice classic British based education program. Presently, the system has evolved to a broad based education with an increase of versatility and diversity. The unique characteristic of the Singapore education system may be the bilingual policy. It was implemented in 1966. It had been compulsory for pupils to take up the key median language-English to talk to other races and also with foreigners. This will help Singaporeans to communicate properly with fellow Singaporeans that may prevent any pointless conflicts due to miscommunication. It also helps Singaporeans to be able to communicate effectively wherever they are on the planet as English is a trusted language internationally. Another dialect is the student’s traditional language, end up being it Chinese, Malay, Tamil, this is to maintain the ideals of the respective racial groups locally.

Students will attend standard education for 6years after pre-institution. And abide by on into secondary university etc. However, education does not only end after graduating. Singaporeans own many opportunities for additional trainings as the Singapore government is focusing to develop its workforce to be able to increase productivity. The federal government can be targeting in creating a skilled workforce to increase global competitiveness.

Singapore Politics

Singapore had her first elections in 1959 after being granted full internal self-governance. The dominating get together in the country is the People’s Actions Party (PAP) that is business lead by Mr. Lee Kuan Yew. He is also today’s minister mentor, a position created when his child, Lee Hsien Long became Singapore’s third primary minister. Opposition get-togethers are namely the personnel’ get together (WP), Singapore Democratic Alliance Party (SDA), Singapore Democratic Get together (SDA), Democratic Get together (SDP) and Democratic Progressive Get together (DPP). Singapore was known internationally through joining the United Nations, followed by the Commonwealth in 1965. (Singapore, Summary: Politics of Singapore)

The unicameral Parliament currently involves 84 members elected based on universal adult suffrage, and up to nine “nominated” customers of Parliament. A constitutional provision assures at least three opposition users, whether or not fewer than three actually are elected. A “non-constituency” seat held by the opposition under this provision since 1997 was again filled after the last election held on May 6, 2006. IN-MAY 2006, basic election, the governing People’s Action Get together (PAP) received 82 of the 84 seats. The president appoints nominated customers of Parliament from among nominations by a particular select committee. Nominated members of Parliament (NMPs) enjoy the same privileges as people of Parliament but cannot vote on constitutional issues or expenditures of money. The utmost term of Parliament is definitely 5 years. NMPs provide for two-and-a-half-year conditions. Voting provides been compulsory since 1959. (Background take note: Singapore)

Singapore is definitely a democratic culture. However, Economist Intelligent Unit has categorized Singapore as a “hybrid” country that consists of both authoritarianism and democracy. Today’s Singapore enjoys political balance that attracts shareholders and foreign talents.

Overview of Singapore Overall economy

Despite the tiny geographic size of the country and small domestic industry, Singapore not merely has strong worldwide trade links with many countries. Singapore Economy is also just about the most prosperous globally. Singapore was ranked third in ’09 2009 being the most competitive economy on earth by the world financial forum. (Singapore keeps 3rd location in competitiveness ranking).

According to the Environment Bank “CONDUCTING BUSINESS 2010 Report,” Singapore economy is considered to be the easiest to do organization in. Some favorable results about Singapore explained in the report:

Ranked Zero.1 for having the most open and liberal overall economy for international trade

Ranked Zero.2 as the overall economy with the very best investment potential

Ranked #1 in Asia and #4 on earth for having low degrees of corruption in the economy

(Economy Rankings; Singapore Economy)

Singapore does not have natural resources. However, due to its strategic location and authorities policies, it started to be a hub of international investment. The neighborhood government procedures a pro-foreign purchase and export-orientated economical policy. This can help to attract large scale of foreign investment despite its excessive operating cost. For example: United States have invested about $106.5billion worth property in the provider and manufacturing sectors. Various other aspect that attracts the international investors is skilled staff, advanced infrastructure, political stableness and corruption free government. (Background Note: Singapore)

Hierarchy and Composition of Singapore Companies

In Singapore, companies operate in a top-down composition whereby the senior administration in the business does all significant decision-makings. Respect is given prior to the senior associates of the group and is often being introduced first. It is usually polite to stand whenever a higher-ranking official arrives at a venue, and to be seated after the important employees is seated.

Unlike other countries, girls also play an essential role in the work field and so are given chances to carry managerial positions in the corporations. There is absolutely no prejudice against gender, years and race due to the fair employment law.

Singapore Business Practices

In Singapore businesscustoms, building of personal human relationships is considered more important that the company that you symbolizes (ASAG-biotech network,

Year unknown). During business circumstances, a light handshake can be used (Warnstam, 2007). Singaporeans wish to bargain and haggle during negotiations. (Katz, 2007) Whilst running a business discussion, Singaporeans appears to be calm and barely reveals their emotions. Additionally it is considered incredibly rude to speak loudly or interrupt throughout a conversation.

It is crucial that business cards are becoming inspected properly before putting them apart as it represents a form of respect and acknowledgement of the person. Name cards should be held with both hands and show the recipient with the right print facing to them. Name cards should be placed up for grabs instead of shoving into pockets or totes as a type of respect. It is also important to wait and be introduced by the sponsor. Intensive eye connection with a senior control or an elderly is considered a sign of disrespect. As a way to show a type of respect, it is crucial to know how exactly to greet a person name based on his or her race. For instance, greeting via surnames is necessary during the first ending up in Singaporean Chinese. Gift ideas are acceptable generally in most organizations. However, products to government employees may be considered as bribery and can be prohibited in Singapore (Warnstam, 2007).

Singapore Working Practices

In Singapore Business culture, punctuality is really important and efforts ought to be designed to arrive early or on time. Appointments should be manufactured in advance. Should there be any late arrivals, it is of basic courtesy to see the other party and also to advise the latest arrival time. The normal office hours are normally between 9:00a.m. to 5:00 pm from Mondays to Fridays that involves an hour lunch break in between. Some offices will also are powered by Saturdays especially in the morning.

Overview of Italy

Italy used to end up being varied culturally, economically and politically. However, today the Italians happen to be largely homogeneous linguistically and religiously. Italy gets the fifth-highest population density in Europe, with a approximate people of 60 million people (Italy Travel Guidebook). Minority groups are small, the greatest being the German-speaking people of Bolzano Province and the Slovenes around Trieste. There are also little communities of Albanian, Greek, Ladino, and French origin. Although immigration possesses been increasing in recent years, the Italian population is still declining because of low birth costs. (Affairs, 2010)

Brief history of Italy

Through the ensuing years, countless rulers from beyond the Alps, with or without the consent of the papacy, didn’t impose their authority. Throughout the fourteen and fifteenth centuries of campanilismo (native patriotism), simply a minorityof people would have heard the word “Italia.” Loyalties had been predominantly provincial. However, there were elements that made a solid contrast to the environment beyond the Alps that is clearly a common legal culture, high degrees of lay education and urban literacy, a close romance between town and region, and nobility who regularly engaged in trade.

There are three features, specifically, out of this period that solidified the notion of a unified culture. First of all, it was the maturing of the financial development that was started in the early centuries. With increasing urbanization, the northern and central Italian trade, manufacture, and fiscal capitalism continued with amazing vigor and have remarkable influence throughout most the Mediterranean areas and Europe as a whole. It was a production that served as the necessary preliminary for the growth of Europe beyond its historical bounds by the end of the fifteenth hundred years. Second, the extension of de facto independent city-claims, which, whether as republics or as powers ruled by one person or family, created a powerful impression after contemporaries and posterity. Finally, allied to the activities stated above, it was in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that civilization of the ‘Italian Renaissance” was created from this society, that was to be exported to the others of Europe.

Ethnic Relations

Many countries and peoples own conquered and occupied Italy over the centuries, and therefore, triggering the Italians to resent each one of these conquerors. Even so, they intermarried with them and accepted a variety of their customs. (Salamone)

Culture of Italians

Ethnic Italians constitute about 95% of the population, and the major ethnics minority of the Romanians (officially 1%, however maybe dual that). There is an increaseing wave of immigration from the EU countries of Eastern European countries and illegitimate immigration from the south-eastern Europe and northern Africa happen to be increasing.

Appearances concerns in Italy and having an excellent image ‘bella figure’ is essential. And you will be judged not merely by the smartness of your dresses and accessories, but also by the general style and demeanour. Community etiquette is normally energetic but also somewhat formal. (Italy)

Economy of Italy

Italy started to industrialize rapidly after 1945, leaving the traditional agriculture, until a spot where significantly less than 5% of the population is engaged in agriculture. Nearly all these populations live in the south of Italy, which is substantially poorer than the rest of the country. Their key crops are glucose beet, wheat, tomatoes and fruit (especially grapes. Majority of the grapes are being used for wines, which Italy is a leading producer).

Italy proceeds to rely intensely on the export of made items, although the tourism industry is enjoying a significant position alongside other service industries such as for example financial products and services, along with most western European economies. Their strengths happen to be particularly in advanced manufacturing tactics and systems, high-quality style and precision engineering.

Most of the professional raw materials and a lot more than 75% of energy requirements will be imported. The Italian’s overall economy features been sluggish since 2000 with growth in 2009 2009 of 5% and is likely to drop further more. The inflation in 2009 2009 was slightly below 1% and the unemployment rate is 7.5%.

Despite doubts about the size of its growing finances deficit (public debt can be 105% of GDP) in Europe, Italy was among the founding participants of the Euro-zone in 1999. The existing government offers enacted some reforms to improve competitiveness and growth. (Italy Travel Guide)


The official vocabulary inItaly is normally Italian, and majority of the population (about 93%) are indigenous Italian speakers and about 50% of population speaks a regional dialect as mom tongue. As much of the dialects will be mutually unintelligible and are regarded by linguists as another language, thus it isn’t officially recognised.


90% of the populations are Roman Catholic, and the rest of the of the populations comprises generally of Jews, the developing inhabitants of Muslims, Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholics.


The type of federal government in Italy can be parliamentary democratic republic. The main political parties: Folks of Liberty (Popolo della LibertГ ), Democratic Get together (Partito Democratico), Northern Little league (Lega Nord), Italy of Ideals (Italia dei Valori), Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro), Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista). (_)

Political Philosophy

There is different types of political philosophy that existed in Italy will be typically egalitarian socialism / communism and nationalistic fascism.

One of the examples can be Benito Mussolini. He ruled as a dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943 and his political philosophy, which he referred to as fascism, was based on the full total domination of the federal government in all spheres of political, interpersonal, economic, and cultural existence. The Italians regards him as a hero in the initial level until he was driven by the government before the end of World Battle II. (Benito Mussolini)


At present the Italian college system is split into four levels:

Kindergarten / Preschool (Scuola Materna)

For children aged three to five, the scuola materna supplies optional education for kids and every kid is entitled to a place.It is not compulsory for a kid to wait preschool but most father and mother enrol their children in a scuola materna. Preschool in Italy is certainly no cost except in private institutions.

Primary college (scuole elementare)

School in Italy is definitely compulsory from age six onwards. Latest legislation changes ensures that children may start scuola primaria from the age of five and a half onwards (that is to bring Italian schools in line with European schools regarding school leaving ages). Primary institution lasts for five years. Student had to complete an exam at the end of fifth year before they could progress to secondary university.

Lower secondary (scuola media)

Attendance at lower secondary institution (scuola media) is certainly compulosry for all kids between the age range of 11 to 14. Students are required to attend 30 time of classes weekly, though some schools may offer more classes if there is demand (up to40 hours).

Every term, each student receives a teacher’s report outlining their aptitude, habit and achievement. Towards the end of the third year, pupils sit a standard examination consisting of created papers in Italian, in addition to exams in mathematics, research and a spanish.

An oral exam can be administered in every subjects except religion. Effective students are awarded their lower secondary school diploma (diploma di licenza press) and move on to upper secondary school.

Upper secondary college (scuola superiore)

Upper Secondary College (scuola superiore) involves between three and five years of attendance. Learners do an obligatory two years (biennio) of general analyses abide by by an optional 3 years (triennio) of specialised education. Students need to choose at this time which kind of course they would like to study, depending on whether they are thinking of going on to university afterwards, or if they’re lookingat finding a vocational qualification. State

college in Italy is free of charge until the end of key education. Institution in Italy is usually compulsory until the age of 16. (Italian Education & Schooling in Italy)

Next, we will be making cultural differences evaluation on Italy and Singapore employing Geert Hofstede style.

Geert Hofsted Cultural Dimensions

Power Distance Index (PDI) this is the extent to which the less powerful customers of organizations and establishments (like the family members) accept and expect that power is normally distributed unequally. It shows that a society’s degree of inequality can be endorsed by the supporters as much as by the leaders. Electric power and inequality are key facts of any contemporary society and anyone with certain working knowledge or interaction will remember that ‘all societies are unequal.

Individualism (IDV) is the contrary of collectivism. Ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him or herself and his / her immediate family members. On the collectivist area, we find societies in which people from birth onwards usually are cohesive in groups and frequently extended families participants continue in guarding them in trade for unquestioning loyalty. The word ‘collectivism’ may has no political meaning nonetheless it is discussing the group, however, not the state. Again, the issue addressed is fundamental, concerning all societies on the planet.

Masculinity (MAS) is the opposite of femininity and it identifies the distribution of functions between the genders which can be a fundamental issue for just about any society to which a range of solutions are located. Studies revealed that women’s values differ from men’s ideals which men’s values in one country to another contain assertiveness, competitiveness whereas women’s values on the one other side tend to end up being modest and caring. The assertiveness and competitivenesspole possesses commonly been known as masculine while modest and caring is commonly referred as feminine.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it in the end refers to man’s search for Truth. Uncertain conditions are novel, unknown, unexpected, and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures make an effort to minimize the opportunity of such scenarios by strict regulations and rules, security and safety measures. People in countries which experience uncertainty are also more emotional while people whom happen to be receptive of uncertainty happen to be considerably more tolerant of opinions not the same as what they are being used to. There happen to be few rules to adhere to and persons within these cultures will be more phlegmatic and contemplative.

Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: this 5th dimension was within a study among students in 23 countries all over the world, using a questionnaire created by Chinese scholars it is usually said to deal with Virtue no matter Truth. Values usually connected with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance while values associated with SHORT-TERM Orientation are value for tradition, fulfilling interpersonal obligations, and conserving one from embarrassment. Both positively and the negatively rated values of the dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the virtually all influential Chinese philosopher; on the other hand, the dimension also applies to countries with out a Confucian heritage.


Geert Hofstedeâ„¢ Cultural Dimensions

The World Factbook 2002

The Buddhist-Shinto societies also have yet another Dimension, that of Long Term Orientation (LTO). Geert Hofstede added this Dimension following the original study, and it had been put on twenty-three of the fifty first countries inhis research. The Buddhist/Shinto Countries of Taiwan and Japan have LTO as the most closely correlating Dimension.

Comparisons between Singapore and Italy: Hofstede’s Cultural Sizes:



















Based on the figures above, there are various distinctions between Singapore and Italy which will be discussed in as of the following.

Power Length Index (PDI)

Power Distance (PD) identifies the amount of inequality that exists, which is being accepted, amongthe persons with and without ability. A high PD rating indicates that the society accepts an unequal distribution of vitality and people would not exceed their place in the machine. A low PD ensures that vitality is shared and equally dispersed. This signifies that society members look at everyone as equals.

Application: Based on the Hofstede’s model, in a higher PD such as Malaysia (PD of 104), employees from the lower management position would probably send reports to top rated management, who’ll have a closed door meeting where just a few leaders attends. In a minimal PD country such as for example Austria (PD of 11), the energy are similarly distributed among the lower and top management.



High PD

Centralized companies.

Strong hierarchies.

Large gaps in settlement, authority, and respect.

Acknowledge a leader’s electricity.

Be aware that you may need to visit the top for answers

Low PD

Flatter organizations.

Supervisors and employees are believed almost as equals.

Use teamwork

Involve as many people as likely in decision making.


Based on the PDI, Singapore includes a higher PDI than that of Italy. Even though, Singapore and Italy shares the same aspects of hierarchy and a common trait of downward conversation, Singaporeans tends to be even more respectful to the senior operations and elders. Alternatively, Italians are even more outspoken within their speech and they love to ridicule authority and with persons who happen to be in positions of electric power ( To Italians, breaking petty guidelines are a kind of entertainment. Nevertheless, breakings of rules happen to be uncommon in Singapore.

Individualism (IDV)

Individualism (IDV) refers to the strength of ties people have to others within the community. A high IDV rating indicates a loose connection in the world. Countries with a high IDV score there is a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility, beyond family group and perhaps a few close friends. A low IDV scores means the world have strong group cohesion, and there will be a large amount of loyalty and respect for members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people take more responsibility for every single other’s well being.

Accordingly to the Hofstede’s model, countries such as America have large individualism/collectivism dimensions and they are more individualistic. ( There are collectivistic measurements countries in Central America such as for example Panama and Guatemala where the IDV scores are incredibly low. Marketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community would most likely be understood and well-received.



High IDV

High valuation on people’s period and their dependence on freedom.

An enjoyment of issues, and an expectation of rewards for effort.

Respect for privacy.

Acknowledge accomplishments.

Don’t ask for too much personal information.

Encourage debate and expression of own ideas.


Emphasis on building expertise and growing to be masters of something.

Work for intrinsic benefits.

Harmony more important than honesty.

Show respectfor age and wisdom.

Suppress feelings and feelings to function in harmony.

Respect traditions and present change slowly.


As individualism has been defined as societies connecting people are considered loose, persons in Italy are only in charge of themselves and their quick family ( However, Italians also have minimum opinions on collectivism in such whereby under people collective cultures are born into a group and they’ll remain the same participants of that cohesive group because of their entire lives. ( Alternatively, despite the similarities of Singaporeans on the views on individualism, being truly a multi-racial culture, Singaporeans are more on the side to be collective; in such whereby guy is to be judged not by his own personality, actions or race. (

Masculinity (MAS)

Masculinity (MAS) – This identifies how much a society sticks with, and ideals, traditional male and feminine roles. High MAS scores are located in countries where males are anticipated to be tough, to be the service provider, to be assertive and also to be strong. If girls work outside the home, they have independent professions from males. Low MAS scores usually do not reverse the gender roles. In a minimal MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men working together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to be sensitive and women of all ages can work hard for professional achievements.

Application: Japan is very masculine with a score of 95 whereas Sweden gets the lowest measured value. According to Hofstede’s analysis, if you were to start an business office in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a male employee to lead the group and had a strong malecontingent on the group. In Sweden, however, you would aim for a staff that was balanced with regards to skill rather than gender.



High MAS

Men are masculine and women of all ages are feminine.

There is a well described distinction between men’s function and women’s work.

Be aware that people may anticipate male and feminine roles to be distinct.

Advise men to avoid discussing emotions or making emotionally-established decisions or arguments.


A female can do anything a guy can do.

Powerful and successful females will be admired and respected.

Avoid an “old males’ club” mentality.

Ensure job style and practices aren’t discriminatory to either gender.

Treat people equally.


Based on the style of Hofstede’s Cultural Measurements, Italy has a more impressive range of Masculinity than Singapore. Many Italian guys are still treating ladies with gallantry and worth machismo. ( Despite women getting into the workforce, the numbers are kept little and only a few are in a higher management. Obligations of Italian ladies are mainly to cook, tidy and look after the children. In contrast to Singapore’s way of life, Singapore is more open to women in workforce as the large quality lifestyle may be one of the reasons and dual income in a family are most welcome. Perhaps, this is among the factor which straight causes the number of women employed in higher management is boost rapidly (


Avoidance Index (UAI)

Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) – This pertains tothe amount of anxiety society participants feel when in uncertain or unfamiliar situations. High UAI-scoring countries try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. They will be governed by guidelines and order and they search for a collective “truth”. Low UAI ratings indicate the culture enjoys novel occurrences and values variations. There are very few rules and persons are encouraged to discover their own truth.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions imply that when discussing a project with people in Belgium, whose country obtained a 94 on the UAI scale, you should investigate the various options and then present a restricted number of choices and you’ll have to include detailed information on your own contingency and risk programs.



High UAI

Very formal business conduct with plenty of rules and policies.

Need and expect structure.

Sense of nervousness spurns high levels of emotion and expression.

Differences are avoided.

Be obvious and concise about your goals and parameters.

Plan and prepare, communicate often and early, provide detailed ideas and give attention to the tactical aspects of a job or project.

Express your thoughts through hands gestures and brought up voices.


Informal business attitude.

More concern with permanent strategy than what’s happening every day.

Accepting of modification and risk.

Do not impose rules or structure unnecessarily.

Minimize your psychological response by being calm and contemplating situations before speaking.

Express curiosity when you discover differences.

As Italy suffered numerous wars, political and monetary instability in history, therefore these factors had created a direct effect on Italians and also generate dread for the unknown.

Generally, Italians prefers to partner and handles people that they are more acquainted with. Thus, they will prefer to learn more about a particular person before communicating and use. ).

As compared to Singapore, Singaporeans are more willing to venture out into setting up own companies and they are able to take more risk. This is because of the great efforts of the neighborhood government and also the nation itself is politically secure. They motivate citizens to venture out of Singapore, overcoming mental barriers in failing and learning from various other successful instances (Chhokar and House, 2007). Hence, you will see lower uncertainty avoidance in the country.

Long-Term Orientation (LTO)

Long Term Orientation (LTO) – This refers to how much society values long-standing – instead of short term – traditions and values. This can be the 5th dimension that Hofstede added in the 1990s after finding that Asian countries with a solid connect to Confucian philosophy acted differently from western cultures. In countries with a higher LTO score, delivering on cultural obligations and avoiding “lack of face” are considered very important.

According to Hofstede’s examination, people in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) have got low LTO scores. This suggests that it may be a norm to expect anything in this tradition with regards to innovative expression and novel concepts. The model implies that people in america and UK do not value tradition as much as many others, and so are therefore apt to be willing to assist you to execute the most progressive plans provided that they reach participate fully.


High LTO

Family may be the basis of society.

Parents and men have significantly more authority than young people and women.

Strong work ethic.

High value positioned on education and training.

Show respect for traditions.

Do not really display extravagance or action frivolously.

Reward perseverance, loyalty, and commitment.

Avoid doing anything that would cause another to “lose face”.


Promotion of equality.

High creativity, individualism.

Treat others as you want to be treated.

Self-actualization is sought.

Expect to live by the same expectations and rules you create.

Be respectful of others.

Do certainly not hesitate to introduce important changes.

Being an Asian country like Singapore which is certainly unlike to European countries, for example Italy; a lot of the population contains Chinese. Singapore is principally influenced by Confucianism therefore conformity, sense of shame, interpersonal obligations and duty are the characteristics which shaped the chinese customs (Tian, 2004). Influenced by the Confucian culture, Singapore’s fee for individualism and masculinity is definitely low but on top of the energy and uncertainty avoidance. Roman Catholic is the main religion in Italy and for that reason teaching of long-term orientation in Confucianism might not exactly be well known in Italy (

Introduction of Organisation ABC

In 1912, founded in Italy, Florence, Organisation ABC is one of the world’s top rated and well-established luxury brands. The brand styles, manufactures and distributes highly desirable leather goods (bags, small leather items, and luggage) shoes, ready to wear, silks, watches and jewelry. The company distributes through a network of thoroughly selected and directly operated stores in key markets throughout the world and offers wholesale item through franchise shops, duty-free boutiques, leading section and specialty stores.

In 2009, there are always a total of 283 directly operated stores around the world.

Organisation ABC in Singapore

In Singapore, ABC offers two direct operated shops and is among the smallest regions among the Asia Pacific. Within any office and retail stores, there are a total of 200 staff members. Cross-Cultural Issues confronted between Singapore and Italy (Florence)

As introduced, since ABC organisation is certainly a multi-national organisation, the workers within the organisation need to work with people around the globe very frequently. The workers mostly communicate to the overseas companions through emailing and phone calls to pass down information’s from head office to distribute to the rest of the regions.

One of the problems Singaporean employees employed in ABC organisation faced while working with the Italians (Target country: Singapore and Italy) is the time zone differences between your two countries. Between Singapore and Florence, Singapore is certainly six hours before Florence. (

As the staff members within the organisation are required to communicate to Italy often, Singaporeans will will have to accommodate to the Italians’ timing (which is six time later) to complete any job assigned. For example, section XYZ received a shipment from Italy and had found that the props inside had been damaged and some parts were missing.

Based on the organisation’s corporate recommendations, the Singaporean crew was supposed to create the props within the week to start the campaign together with the rest of the world. Therefore, without the delay, the Singaporean team quickly contacted the Italians through cell phones to further discussed on the substitution on the damaged parts and the missing props.

The whole process of getting the Italians to displace the missing props and ruined parts took almost a week through emails and phone calls. In frequent cases like this, the Singaporean team finds it hard to communicate with the Italians through the email messages as it causes organization delays, misunderstandings and damages to commercial and personal interactions. They feel that the business decisions are frequently delayed due to too little response to emails caused by the time distinctions for both countries and specifically during summer time breaks in Europe.

During summer breaks, it is very difficult for Singaporeans to in contact with someone who is the only in-fee in a category whom had gone for summer season break. Despite having getaway seasons, you will see no replacements to greatly help out the employee (who is off for summer vacation), to access any enquires from the rest of outlets stationed overseas. As such, problems are often not having the ability to solve immediately and therefore, in this scenario, the simple requirement of replacing the lacking props and ruined parts are delayed for weekly and not in a position to meet up with the required time for unit installation. With supporting content, “Email traditions may harm business” obviously explained that quality of this content of some email messages sent can often be at fault as much important email messages contains no method of drawing the recipients’ attention to their significance.

When the Singaporean group communicates to the Italians over the phone, they’ll also face challenges of connection barriers between both countries. During conversations, most Singaporeans generally speak in English while most Italians are too used to, speaking in their first vocabulary, which is Italian.

With the difference in accents and pronunciation, Singaporeans frequently faced problems such as trying to understand what the Italians will be conveying with the difference in pronouncing vowels. This highlights the shortcoming of Italians to differentiate words distinguished in English exclusively by the vowels (e.g., sheep – ship, beg – bag, etc). Therefore, leads to intelligibility problems as their tendency to have a little epenthetic vowels towards the end of each English words, especially those ending with an end consonant (e.g., in did, big, etc.).

This is a feature is often typically emphasized in stereotyping of the Italian accent in English. (Г .pdf). Consequently, this creates a issue to the Singaporean crew as they often mistaken what the Italians happen to be conveying through the phone conversation. They will only understand the actual meaning of what they werereferring to, after a helping email had been dispatched by the Italian team comprising better clarification and understanding on what’s being emphasized through the telephone conversation.

Implementations to solutions of Singapore

1. Trained in International Management

To improve workers attitude and behavior to reduce needless conflicts or misunderstand when working with other foreign parties.

Social and business ethics, customs, etc are some essential regions of training focus.

This is important since it helps to smoothen virtually all daily operational issues which take up lots of time in solving them. Therefore, by reducing period wastage in solving unneeded issues, it will allow additional time for further advancement of business globally.